Eighteenth-Century Poetry Archive: Now on 18th Connect

Please join us in welcoming the Eighteenth-Century Poetry Archive (ECPA) to the 18th Connect collection! ECPA provides an open-access digital archive of high-quality primary and secondary sources. Their full-text collection is edited and annotated as a collaborative effort, with a large network of editors, scholars, and students dedicated to collaborating and sharing texts.

ECPA also supplements their texts whenever possible with digital images. In many cases, researchers and collaborators can see the appearance of the source document, check the transcription, and engage with their XML-editor for corrections and improvements. ECPA is also a research project, the aims of which are to provide and contribute to a growing body of annotated texts, analyses, tools, and secondary sources. ECPA works with and builds upon texts created by the Text Creation Partnership from Gale’s, and uses the Oxford Text Archive’s (OTA) TEI/XML p5 versions of texts.

ECPA is updated on a biannual basis, and their future projects include increasing the number of authors available (particularly women authors) and providing better interconnection between analytical layers to make points of connectedness more visible, especially in terms of how these points are maintained, dissolved, and taken up again over time.

Currently, ECPA is searchable as one of 18th Connect’s “Other Digital Collections.” However, we anticipate peer-reviewing their content and reindexing them in the coming months as “Peer-Reviewed Projects.”

Have a question about ECPA? You can e-mail them at or visit their website at

January Roundup: Happy Birthday Mozart!

The images in this gallery celebrate the life of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, whose 264th birthday occurs on January 27th.

Mozart began composing from the age of 5 and composed over 600 works throughout the course of his short life. His work is considered archetypical of the Classical style, spanning many genres including symphony, opera, solo concerto, chamber music, and piano sonata. After his death, Mozart’s reputation for skill and versatility persisted, influencing later composers such as Ludwig van Beethoven, Frederic Chopin, and Pyotr Tchaikovsky.

The images and information presented here are courtesy of Europeana. Europeana Collections is an initiative of the European Union (EU), working with thousands of European archives, libraries and museums to share Europe’s cultural heritage for enjoyment, education, and research. The entire collection of books, music, artworks, and more contains over 50 million digitized items. Their music collection features over 300,000 recordings, sheet music, instruments, and much more, all freely accessible to 18thConnect users.

18th Connect Was at Behn/ Burney 2019!

Logo for the conference

In November of 2019, the Auburn University College of Liberal Arts hosted the biennial joint meeting of the Aphra Behn and Frances Burney Societies. The theme of the conference was “Public Good(s),” and scholars presented a wide range of conferences and workshops that engaged with the questions surrounding public engagement and advocacy, both historically and practically.

18th Connect was represented at this conference by both Dr. Emily Friedman (our Director) and Ms. Elizabeth Brissey (our Project Manager). Ms. Brissey hosted a collaborative workshop entitled “An Introduction to 18thConnect.Org,” which provided a framework for beginning a Digital Humanities project with integration into 18th Connect in mind.

Click on the following link to view and download Ms. Brissey’s presentation slides.

July 2019: 18th Connect at ISECS!

Logo for the International Society of Eighteenth Century Studies 2019 ConferenceIn July of 2019, The British Society for Eighteenth-Century Studies hosted the ISECS International Congress on the Enlightenment at the University of Edinburgh. The theme of the congress was “Enlightenment Identities,” and ISECS welcomed a wide range of submissions on the topic.

We are pleased to announce that 18th Connect was represented at this conference! Our director, Emily Friedman of Auburn University, hosted a collaborative workshop entitled “Getting Started with Digital Humanities,” which provided beginners with a framework for embarking upon Digital Humanities projects with an emphasis on skills and strategies for sharing work in peer-reviewed formats. Click on each following link to view and download Dr. Friedman’s presentation slides and her helpful handouts!

Featured Collection: Digital Library of the Caribbean

Three images from the Smathers Library and Digital Library of the CaribbeanOur first featured collection comes to us from the University of Florida’s George A. Smathers Libraries, which has partnered with the Digital Library of the Caribbean to make available a large collection of maps and images accessible through 18thConnect.

According to the Digital Library of the Caribbean:

“The dLOC Caribbean Map Collection‘s maps represent only a small part of the wealth of historical and archival treasures held by the contributing archives, libraries, and museums. Maps collected here date from 1564 through the present. The majority of maps in this collection document a colonial past. While many of these maps were originally published as maps independent of any other publication, some were published with atlases, books, government documents, shipping and railroad schedules, land promotions, etc. Maps in this collection include island, municipal, county and parish maps as well as maps depicting the region more broadly.”

We encourage you to take a look around this stunning collection of images and maps!

August 2019, Elizabeth Brissey Appointed Project Manager for 18thConnect.Org

Image of Elizabeth Brissey, the new Project Manager of 18th ConnectPlease join us in welcoming Elizabeth Brissey to the 18thConnect team as project manager.

Elizabeth is a PhD candidate at Auburn University, where she studies Medieval and Early Modern epistemology, material culture, book history, and cognitive studies in literature.

As project manager, Elizabeth is assisting in checking submissions of XML for peer review, uploading materials to the site, updating the site’s visual look, and working with our social media outlets to share news, features, and interesting items in our collection.

If you need to reach Elizabeth (or the other members of our team), please send a message to Inquiries@18thConnect.Org!

18th Connect’s New Director: Dr. Emily Friedman

Image of Doctor Emily Friedman We’re excited to announce that Dr. Emily Friedman, Associate Professor of English at Auburn University, has been appointed director of 18th Connect!

Dr. Friedman received her master’s degree from the University of York, England and her Ph.D. in English from the University of Missouri. In addition to her work with 18thConnect, Dr. Friedman is the creator of Manuscript Fiction in the Age of Print, 1750-1900, a digital project focused on collecting, describing, encoding, and researching fiction manuscripts unpublished in their author’s lifetime.

Emily’s research interests include the “very long” 18th century, the history of the book, print and manuscript culture, and much more. As director of 18thConnect, Dr. Friedman is looking forward to expanding our collection, improving the visual layout of the site, and updating its functionality.

EEBO now in TypeWright

EEBO in TypeWright

We are pleased to announce that the Mellon-funded Early Modern OCR Project – eMOP – has completed running Optical Character Recognition Software on the 138,538 documents in ProQuest’s Early English Books Online (EEBO), and we are now making almost all of them available in for correcting the OCR. Some document images were too poor to run through the software, but we have loaded the resulting “dirty OCR” for 113,909 documents into the TypeWright tool at for crowd-sourced correction ( We were able to get an excellent contract with both ProQuest and Gale for all the documents that are loaded into TypeWright, all of EEBO and Eighteenth-Century Collections Online (ECCO): any scholar or student who corrects a document gets to keep it to do whatever they wish with it, ideally create an online digital edition such one you can see here, created by an undergraduate student of Stephen Gregg’s.

Once corrected, 18thConnect will send you the document in both plain-text and TEI-encoded formats. Additionally, the full-text will then be full-text searchable in both ProQuest and Gale’s EEBO and ECCO, and in When you search the latter, 18thConnect gives search returns in the form of links to the texts in EEBO or ECCO, but, for those who use 18thConnect without subscriptions to those databases, we also provide information about holding libraries. Moreover, for those who DO subscribe to these catalogues, our research capacities will have been increased by working on the data we care about. Please note that these catalogs are being sold to libraries just as they are – in correcting the data, we are NOT increasing the profits of these companies, only our own research capacities (please see Mandell and Grumbach, “The Business of Digital Humanities: Capitalism and Enlightenment,” Scholarly and Research Communication 6.4 [2015]).

A word about search: although all of Gale’s ECCO is searchable by word, OCR errors diminish the number of results one gets. A forthcoming article by Mandell demonstrates that the error rate in searching for bigrams (two-word phrases) is 50 to 60%–that is, one is missing over half the results one might otherwise get. In the case of EEBO, only those texts that have been typed by the Text Creation Partnership are searched by word when you are searching EEBO, as you can see on the EEBO search page, in the drop-down box describing what is searchable:


We sincerely hope that professors and students can work together to make sure that these unstranscribed and poorly mechanically transcribed documents (the 85,200 documents so far not available to search as full text) do not become part of a “dark archive,” but can be fully searchable by future generations of scholars, both inside and outside the academy. [Note: This paragraph was slightly edited from it’s original version, on March 11th, 2016.]

You can access the EEBO documents at, using the TypeWright tab, “Advanced Search,” or the Search Tab and selecting “TypeWright Enabled Documents”; in both cases, also select “EEBO” under “Other Collections.”

In addition to the instructions for using TypeWright available on the site itself once you begin editing a document, we an introductory video available. We also have a few short videos available on a playlist on YouTube (and below) that introduces TypeWright features one by one, and includes a video about editing EEBO texts specifically, which pose their own kinds of problems.



Also, feel free to contact us with questions or concerns at

ASECS 2015 Pre-Conference Workshop: Liberate the Text

Come to the Liberate the Text ASECS Pre-Conference Workshop, beginning at 8:00 am on Wednesday, March 18, at the Westin Bonaventura, the San Fernando Room.

The workshop agenda is available here:

If you can’t make it to the whole day, do stop by to see Danielle Spratt and Tonya Howe show us how to teach using TypeWright, from 2:30 to 4:00–

“Teaching students to create digital editions using TypeWright”
How can we use 18thConnect and TypeWright as a way of helping engage students more directly in understanding the literature, culture, and history of the eighteenth century? This session will be devoted to considering multiple effective models for using TypeWright in the classroom, ranging from designing a single DH-based assignment to a semester-long assignment that resulted in a digital edition. Throughout the discussion, we will focus on elements of effective project management models to offer tips and tools to help maximize the use of 18thConnect and TypeWright in addition to other resources (Scalar, Classroom Salon, etc.). The majority of the session will focus on offering hands-on time working with TypeWright to help participants think through and begin to create assignments tailored to serve the needs of faculty and their students.

From 18thConnect to TAPAS: My Digital Editing Journey

Philadelphia’s yellow fever epidemic of 1793 tested the civic and religious leaders of a city trying out its role as forerunner of liberty in the new Republic. Striving printer and publisher Mathew Carey became the self-appointed narrator of the epidemic, reporting what he witnessed, remediating anecdotes, and including lists of the recently deceased in his multiple editions of A Short Account of the Malignant Fever, Lately Prevalent in Philadelphia. Religious leaders Richard Allen and Absalom Jones offered a vitriolic retort to Carey’s depictions of the African American community. In A Narrative of the Proceedings of the Black People (1794), they criticized Carey for his racist depictions of African Americans’ efforts to aid the sick and the city generally in its time of great need and accounted for the many services their congregation at the Bethel AME Church had offered.

Image Courtesy of the American Antiquarian Society

Image Courtesy of the American Antiquarian Society

Image Courtesy of the American Antiquarian Society

Image Courtesy of the American Antiquarian Society
















It is difficult to overstate the importance of Jones and Allen’s pamphlet: scholars such as Richard Newman, Patrick Rael, and Phillip Lapsansky have deemed it the first piece of African American protest literature. It was also the first time that two former enslaved persons claimed copyright in the United States, and the authors’, Jones and Allen’s, identities are partially mediated through print. This pamphlet war then shows how battles tied to books, in both legal and cultural landscapes, refract those fought over the agency that comes with citizenship and with establishing oneself as a viable force in a international marketplace created by empire.



The yellow fever pamphlets—Carey’s, Jones and Allen’s, Dr. Benjamin Rush’s, just to name a few—have received considerable attention from scholars of the early Republic looking to understand civil, racial, and national identity in the first decade of the new nation. These pamphlets also had an international appeal, though little to no attention has been paid to the transatlantic reprints (please see my recent article in Book History on the reprinting of Carey’s pamphlet in London and Dublin). The scholarship on A Narrative of the Proceedings of the Black People almost entirely ignores the London reprint of their pamphlet, thereby overlooking the pamphlet as an early example of international abolitionist literature. The London publishing firm Darton and Harvey, Quakers with a bookshop on Gracechurch Street, just a few doors down from the Meeting House, reproduced A Narrative of the Proceedings of the Black People in the same year that it was printed in Philadelphia, and this is why I decided to create this digital edition of the London edition of the pamphlet.

My first step was to get access to an encoded version of the Philadelphia edition. 18thConnect made this possible through Typewright; I corrected the text-version of a document that Eighteenth-Century Collections Online (ECCO) has run through its optical character recognition, but has not been checked for machine errors. After I spent a few days correcting the OCR mistakes in A Narrative of the Proceedings of the Black People, Laura Mandell and her team at 18thConnect obtained for me the machine encoded xml file of the Philadelphia edition. Through the help of the TEI: Textual Encoding Initiative classes offered by Julia Flanders and Syd Bauman at the NEH-Peron_Screenshotsponsored Women Writers’ Project and the Digital Humanities Summer Institute (DHSI)(many thanks to 18thConnect for helping pay the tuition through its institutional partnership), I changed the encoding so that it reflected not the Philadelphia edition but the London edition. I also began to incorporate my own apparatuses. My edition then became one of the inaugural projects on TAPAS: TEI Archive, Publishing, and Access Service. In addition to offering the first digital surrogate of the London edition of this pamphlet, I have also done substantial research into who the people mentioned in the pamphlet are. Using city directories for 1791, 1793, 1794, and 1795 (I could not locate a Philadelphia directory for 1792), I have created a personography that charts what these people did and where they worked (often the same as where they lived). I then transformed that XML into a CSV, which I incorporated into CartoDB, through which I created a layered map.

This project grew out of the research I did for my dissertation, and when I embarked on a digital edition in early 2011, I was a complete novice in using digital editing tools.  My commitment to the pamphlet motivated to learn what I needed to make this digital edition a reality. My motivation would have come to naught had I not had the institutional support of 18th Connect and TEI initiatives at the Women Writers’ Project and the DHSI. I am grateful for their support throughout this project. The next phase for me is to submit the project to 18thConnect for review, and I would love any feedback before then, so please be in touch with me ( if you have any questions or comments on the project.